world history timeline upto 2006
world history timeline (Bc 9000 – 2006)
c. 9000 : The development of agriculture.
c. 3500 : A number of small cities, centres of the world’s first civilisation, appeared in Sumer, the lower part of the TigrisEuphrates Valley (present Iraq).
c. 3500 : The Sumerians invented the first form of writing. It was later simplified to produce wedge-shaped cuneiform writing, which spread throughout the Middle East.
c. 2500 : The Pyramids and Great Sphinx were built in Giza, Egypt.
c. 2500 : The Indus Valley civilisation began to flourish in the cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in what is now Pakistan.
c. 2500 : The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Epic of Creation, the oldest epic poems in world literature, were written in Mesopotamia.
c. 2500-1100: The Minoan civilisation on the island of Crete rose and fell. 2300s : Sargon of Akkad conquered the Sumerians and united all Mesopotamia under his rule, creating the world’s first empire.
c. 1792-1750 : Babylonia flourished under King Hammurabi.
c. 1700 : Code of Hammurabi, one of the first law codes, was drawn up.
c.1500-1000:The Aryans of central Asia came to India.
c. 1400 : The making of iron began.
776 : The first recorded Olympic Games were held in Greece.
c. 550 : Cyrus the Great established the Persian Empire.
509 : The people of Rome revolted against their Etruscan rulers and established a republic.
500 : The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built.
400 : Hippocrates, the father of Medicine showed that diseases have natural causes.
399 : Socrates was forced to commit suicide by drinking hemlock, a poison.
44 : Julius Caesar of Rome was assassinated.
27 : Augustus became the first Roman emperor.
4 : Birth of Jesus Christ. AD
1 : The Chinese invented paper.
250 : The Mayans developed an advanced civilization in Central America and Mexico.
313 : Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, which granted freedom of worship to Christians of the Roman Empire.
395 : The Roman Empire split into the East Roman, or Byzantine Empire and the West Roman Empire.
300 : The Ghana Empire, the first great black empire in Western Africa, existed as a trading state.
570 : Birth of Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam.
610 : Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, began preaching.
622 : Muhammad, prophet of Islam, fled from Mecca to Medina. His flight, called the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
750 : The Abbasids became the Caliphs of the Islamic world.
800 : Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, ruler of the Franks, emperor of the Romans.
988 : Vladimir I converted the Russians to Christianity.
1054 : Rivalries between the church in Rome and the church in Constantinople resulted in their separation as the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Churches, respectively.
1110 : The Chinese invented the magnetic compass.
1279 : The Mongols gained control of all China.
1300s : The Renaissance began in Italy.
1400-1450s : The first book printed in Europe with movable type appeared in the mid-1400s.
1453 : The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople (Istanbul) and overthrew the Byzantine Empire.
1492 : Columbus discovered America.
1498 : Vasco da Gama discovered sea route to India.
1500s : The Reformation led to the birth of Protestantism.
1519-1521: Ferdinand Magellan commanded the first globe-circling voyage, completed in 1522 after his death.
1526 : Babar, a Muslim prince, invaded India and founded the Mughal Empire.
1543 : Nicolas Copernicus proposed that the sun was the centre of the universe.
1588 : The Royal Navy of England defeated the Spanish Armada, establishing England as a great naval power.
1776 : The 13 American colonies adopted the Declaration of Independence, establishing the United States of America.
1789 : The French Revolution began.
1815 : Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo, ending his attempt to rule Europe.
1858 : Great Britain took over the rule of India from the East India Company after the Indian Revolt.
1869 : The Suez Canal opened.
1871 : Germany became united under the Prussian king, who ruled the new empire as Kaiser Wilhelm I.
1901 : Trans-Siberian Railway opened. Marconi sends first wireless message. Sweden awards first Nobel Prizes.
1902 : First Siamese twins Barnam and Bailey circus twins separated. Thomas Alva Edison invents a new electrical storage battery. London School of Economics and Political Science opened. ‘Cedric’, the world largest ship (21,000 tons) built. First Trans-Atlantic telegraph message sent.
1903 : Marie Curie becomes the first woman to win a Nobel Prize (Physics). Wilber and Orville Wright fly their ‘Flyer’ at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1904 : Henry Royce produces first motor car, a 10hp 2-cylinder model.
1905 : Frenchman Alfred Binet invents intelligence tests. Albert Einstein says time and speed are relative. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen lands at Alaska and finds magnetic pole.
1906 : “HMS Dreadnought”, world’s most powerful ship, built. SOS (Save our Souls) adopted as international distress signal. First submarine, UI, enters service.
1907 : Finland becomes the first to elect women as MPs. Robert Baden Powell forms Boy Scout Movement. Establishment of Kuomintang by Sun Yat-sen. World’s first working helicopter made.
1908 : Solid helium developed by Dutch scientists. Professor Albert Einstein presents his ‘Quantum’ theory of light. Jack Jackson (USA) is the first Negro to become world heavyweight champion.
1909 : London’s new direct 7,000 mile telegraphic link with India opened. Colour films are screened in public for the first time in Brighton. North Pole conquered by US Commander Robert E. Peary.
1910 : First pure sample of radium isolated by Marie Curie. Death of Leo Tolstoy.
1911 : First wireless messages from the air. King George V crowned “King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India”. World’s first official airmail flight between Bamrauli and Naini (India). Beginning of the the Chinese Revolution that ended 1000 years of imperial rule. Sun Yat-sen becomes the first president of the Chinese Republic. Second Nobel Prize awarded to Marie Curie. Ronald Amundsen reaches South Pole.
1912 : Titanic, world’s biggest ship sinks in North Atlantic.
1913 : Grand Central Station, New York, world’s largest railway station, opened. Neil Bohr’s quantum theory of the structure of atoms published. Thomas Edison invents a telephone recorder. Noguchi isolates the virus of rabies.
1914 : Cancer treated with radium successful. Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife shot and killed in Sarajevo by a student, Garvilo Princip. It served as a catalyst for World War I.
1917 : Russian Revolution. Russia became a republic. Bolsheviks came to power in Russia.
1918 : US President Wilson enumerates his 14 points. Moscow is made the new capital of Russia. Bolsheviks become the Russian Communist Party. Tzar Nicholas II and his family massacred.
1919 : Atoms ‘split’ by artificial means for the first time by Professor Ernest Rutherford. First nonstop flight across the Atlantic by Alcock and Brown. Treaty of Versailles signed. First World War ends. Germany declared a republic (Weimar).
1920 : League of Nations inaugurated. The International Court of Justice set up at Hague.
1921 : First BCG vaccine given in France.
1922 : Arms conference in Washington agrees to outlaw the use of gas in warfare. BBC formed. Free state of Ireland created.
1923 : Turkey declared a Republic.
1924 : Bacillus causing rabies isolated by the Pasteur Institute, Paris. Edwin Hubble discovers the unknown boundaries of the Milky Way.
1925 : John Logie Baird perfects television.
1926 : Abdul Aziz ibn Saud proclaimed King of the Hejaz who named his country Saudi Arabia.
1927 : The Jazz Singer, the first talkie, made. First solo non-stop flight between New York and Paris made by Charles Lindbergh.
1928 : Germ killing mould discovered by Alexander Fleming, London. Stalin’s First Five Year Plan.
1929 : Wall Street crash, the biggest financial crisis of the century.
1930 : Pluto, the 9th planet, discovered by Claude Tombaugh. First modern computer designed by Vannevar Bush and his team.
1931 : Thomas Alva Edison dies.
1932 : Chadvick discovers the neutron.
1933 : Adolf Hitler, Nazi leader, becomes Chancel lor of Germany.
1936 : Spanish Civil War begins. Germany’s “People’s Car” – Volkswagen – launched.
1938 : Walt Disney’s first feature-length cartoon, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
1939 : Spanish Civil War comes to an end. Pact of Steel between Italy and Germany. World War II begins.
1941 : Birth of modern commercial television. The Japanese attack Pearl Harbour, bringing USA into World War II.
1944 : DNA discovered. Bretton Woods Conference.
1945 : Mussolini killed by Italian partisans Hitler commits suicide. 50 nations sign the World Security Charger to establish UN. UN Charter signed by 50 countries. Postdam Conference. Little Boy, a Uranium-235 fission bomb, dropped over Japanese city Hiroshima, explodes, 570 mts. above ground, instantly killing over 70,000. A 22-kiloton plutonium 239 bomb, Fat Man, dropped over Nagasaki, explodes 510 mts above ground, killing 40,000 immediately. The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are founded.
1946 : Paris Peace Conference.
1947 : IMF begins operations.
1948 : GATT enters into force. New state of Israel proclaimed.
1952 : King George VI of UK dies and Elizabeth II becomes Queen. Artificial heart used for the first time in USA. A non-violent campaign against apartheid begins in South Africa.
1953 : China’s five-year plan begins. Hammarskjöld sworn in as UN Secretary- General. Mount Everest conquered by Edmund Hillary and Tensing Norway
1956 : Non Alignment Movement founded.
1957 : Agatha Christie’s Mousetrap performs its 1,998th performance. Russia launches a man-made satellite, Sputnik-1.
1958 : US enters space arena, launching Explorer-1.
1959 : Dalai Lama, fleeing from Tibet reaches India and finds sanctuary. Pictures of the dark side of the moon sent back by Lunik III.
1960 : Sirimavo Bandaranaike sworn in as the world’s first woman Prime Minister in Sri Lanka. John F. Kennedy elected president of USA– youngest man and first Roman Catholic to be elected.
1961 : Inter-planetary space station launched by USSR. Soviet Union’s Yuri Gagarin, becomes the first man to fly in space. Alan Shephard Jr. becomes the first American in Space. East Germans erect a five foot wall (Berlin Wall). UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld killed in an aircrash.
1962 : John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit Earth in ‘Mercury’.
1963 : Valentina Tereshkova (USSR) becomes first woman in space. Martin Luther King’s immortal “I have a dream speech”. US President John F.Kennedy assassinated.
1965 : Singapore recedes from Malaysia to become an independent state.
1966 : Luna 9 of USSR makes the first soft lunar landing.
1967 : Apollo I cabin bursts at the Kennedy Space Centre launch pad killing three.
1968 : Martin Luther King assassinated.
1969 : Arafat head of PLO. Anglo-French supersonic airline Concorde introduced. Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin become the first men to set foot on the moon.
1970 : Kingdom of Cambodia becomes the Khmer Republic.
1971 : Vietnam War comes to an end (57,000 Americans lost their lives). Mujibur Rehman declares Bangladesh independent. Marines-9 orbits Mars (first spacecraft to do so).
1973 : Agreement ending Vietnam War signed.
1974 : U.S President Nixon resigns following the Watergate Scandal. Gerald Ford takes over.
1975 : Japan’s Junko Tabei becomes first women to scale Everest. Army coup in Bangladesh.Mujibur Rehman killed.
1977 : Coup in Pakistan; Bhutto deposed; Gen.Zia-ul-Haq takes over.
1978 : Louise Brown, the first test tube baby, born in UK.
1979 : Z.A. Bhutto executed. Margaret Thatcher becomes first woman Prime Minister of Britain. SALT II agreement signed by Jimmy Carter and the Soviet leaders.
1981 : The reusable Space Shuttle Columbia launched. TGV, world’s fastest train, makes its inaugural run from Paris to Lyons.
1982 : Russia’s Venus-13 lands on Venus.
1984 : Dorjei conquers the Everest without oxygen.
1985 : The Rainbow Warrior, flagship of ecological group Greenpeace, sinks after explosion in Auckland.
1986 : US Space Shuttle Challenger explodes after takeoff, killing seven astronaut. Soviet Union’s Mir Space Station launched. Nuclear leak in Chernobyl power station. Ann Bancroft becomes first woman to reach North Pole.
1988 : Pakistan President General Zia-ul-Haq killed in an air crash. India quells invasion of Maldives by sea-borne group. George Bush elected President of USA.
1989 : Ranasinghe Premadasa becomes President of Sri Lanka. Students in Beijing dem onstrate for democratic rights. Chinese troops storm Tienanmen Square and crush the pro-democracy campaign. Ayatollah Khomeini dies. Demolition of Berlin Wall. Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia.
1990 : New Zealander, Richard Hadlee, becomes the first cricketer to take 400 test wickets.Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in prison. Iraq invades Kuwait. UN imposes embargo on Iraq. Unification of Germany.Formal end of Cold War.
1991 : Gulf War. Warsaw Pact disbanded. Kuwait fully liberated. Khaleeda Zia appointed first woman Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Formal end to the Soviet Union. Commonwealth of Independent states formed.
1992 : Earth Summit in Rio.
1993 : Bill Clinton new US President. Netherlands becomes the first country to sanction mercy killings. Allan Border betters Gavaskar’s record (10,122 runs). Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa assassinated. USA’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) stopped. Maastricht Treaty on European Union comes into effect.
1994 : End of Apartheid in South Africa. The comet Shoemaker Levy 9 smashes into Jupiter.
1995 : WTO comes into effect. Austria, Finland and Sweden become new members of EU.Kobe earthquake in Japan kills 4,700 people. DNA code of living organisms deciphered.
1996 : Gary Kasparov wins chess series against IBM computer Deep Blue. Arafat becomes President of Palestinian Authority.
1997 : British scientists clone a sheep (Polly). Hale Bopp comet comes closest to earth (200m.km). Labour Party wins polls in Britain; Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister. Chemical weapons convention takes effect. Britain hands back Hong Kong to China. Mars Pathfinder sends pictures of Mars. Diana, Princess of Wales killed in a car accident.
: Myanmar celebrates its 50th anniversary of independence. Pope John Paul II visits Cuba.
: Sri Lanka celebrates its 50th anniversary of independence. Communist Manifesto completes 150 years of publication. US scientists produce the world’s first cloned Calf named Mr. Jefferson.
: James Cameron’s Titanic wins 11 Oscar awards.
: India conducts five nuclear tests (three on 11th May and two on 13th May 1998).Pakistan conducts six nuclear test (5 on 28th May and one on 30th May 1998).
: France win World Cup Football.
: Jose Saramago, the Portuguese novelist win 1998 Nobel prize for literature. Amartya Sen of India wins 1998 Nobel Prize for Economics. John Glenn, 77, the oldest man in space.
: Twelve European countries launch single currency, the Euro.
: The South African Parliament elects Thabo Mbeki, the country’s new President.
: The US space shuttle, Columbia, blasts off under the first woman commander Eileen Collins, after two failed attempts.
: The former New Zealand Prime Minister,Mike Moore, takes over as the head of the World Trade Organisation.
: S.R. Nathan, sworn in as Singapore’s sixth president.
: The 1999 Nobel Prize for Literature goes to the German Novelist, Günter Grass.
: China celebrates the 50th anniversary of Communist rule
: Army takes over in Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif sacked and confined to House.
: World population turns 6 billion.
: The US formally transfers the control over the Panama Canal to Panama.
world history timeline (2000 -2006)
: Ananova, the world’s first virtual newsreader, makes her debut on the internet at www.ananova.com.
: At the NPT conference in the United Nations, USA, Russia, France, Britain and China pledge to eliminate atomic weapons, without setting a time table.
: An e-mail virus I Love You created by a Filipino creates wide spread damage to computer systems across the world.
: Fiji’s President declares a state of emergency after a group of gunmen led by George Speight seize the nation’s first ethnic Indian Prime Minister, Mahendra Pal Chaudhry and his Cabinet colleagues and MPs as hostages.
: The North Korean leader, Kim Jong Il and the South Korean President, Kim Dae Jung meet at the North Korean capital Pyongyang. They decide to work for the unification of the Korean Peninsula.
: The two-day G-15 summit begins in Cairo (Egypt). It has now 19 members with the inclusion of Columbia and Iran.
: The International Space Station linked up smoothly with the Russian-made Zvezda control module. Zvezda is the first module built solely by Russians.
: George Speight, the leader of the coup in Fiji, is arrested.
: The US astronomers announce that they have detected 10 new planets outside the solar system. It brings the total number of planets circling other stars, so-called exoplanets, to 50.
: British Airways suspends Concorde operations.
: Carl Banks, the Disney Illustrator and creator of Donald Duck passes away.
: Tuvalu, a Pacific island state admitted to the United Nations as its 189th member in its first session of the New Millennium in New York (USA).
: French voters approve a referendum on shortening the Presidential term to five years.
: Russia recognises Yugoslav opposition leader, Vojislav Kostunica’s, historic presidential election victory over Slobodan Milosevic.
: Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the world’s first elected woman Prime Minister, passes away.
: Gao Xingjian, a dissident Chinese novelist and playwright settled in France who left China in 1987 to settle in France, wins the Nobel Prize for Literature for 2000 for his work that has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.
: Kim Dae Jung, South Korean President, selected for the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize for his work towards peace and reconciliation with North Korea that led to a ground breaking summit with his North Korean counterpart.
: The Guinness Book of World Records, sets a new record of its own selling seven million copies of its first edition of the new century.
: Hillary Clinton, wife of US President Bill Clinton, wins the US Senate seat from New York. Thus, she becomes the first wife of a President in American history to be elected to the Senate.
: Margaret Atwood of Canada wins the coveted Booker Prize 2000 for her novel,The Blind Assassin.
: Netherlands becomes the first country to legalise euthanasia, (the mercy killing).
: Nawaz Sharif pardoned off and exiled to Saudi Arabia.
: George W. Bush declared elected as the 43rd President of United States.
: The 15-year-old Mir Space Station abandoned
: ANDi the world’s first genetically modified monkey, created.
: The radical Islamic Taliban regime in Afghanistan demolishes two huge statues of the Buddha at Bamiyan.
: Dennis Tito of the United States becomes the first person to tour the space.
: Denise Quinones August chosen as the 50th Miss Universe at a function in Bayamon in Puerto Rico.
: The Organisation of African Union (OAU) becomes African Union (AU).
: Gen. Pervez Musharraf takes over as the President of Pakistan.
: United Nations (UN) Secretary General and V.S. Naipaul win the Nobel Prize For peace and Literature respectively for 2001.
: Euthanasia or mercy killing comes into force in Netherlands.
: Robert Mugabe elected President of Zimbabwe.
: Xanana Gusmao, the independence leader of East Timor, elected President of the island nation.
: Mark Shuttleworth of South Africa becomes the second space tourist.
: Switzerland becomes the 190th member of UNO.
: Hamid Karzai elected President of Afghanistan.
: The International criminal Court (ICC)starts functioning in the Hague (Netherlands)
: The UN Earth Summit held in Johannesburg (South Africa)
: East Timor joins as the 191st member of the United Nations.
: The 17th Commonwealth Games held in Manchester (U.K)
: The 14th Asian Games held in Busan (South Korea)
: Miss Asra Akin crowned as Miss World.
: SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak in China and spreads all over world killing thousands.
: The space shuttle Columbia perished in space. Seven astronauts including Dr. Kalpana Chawla died (February).
: The USA and Britain jointly launch Operation Iraqi Freedom to liberate Iraq from Sadam Hussain, who build up weapons of mass destruction.
: Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars.
: 28th Summer Olympics was held in Athens in Greece. The USA secured first place, China stood at second. India won only one silver.
: Bomb attacks on four Madrid commuter trains kill 191 and injure hundreds more
: Photos of US soldiers allegedly abusing Iraqi detainees in Abu Gharaib prison emerge.
: A team of Russian scientists and another of US scientists report the discovery of two new chemical elements. These are elements 113, given the temporary name Ununtrium (Uut) and element 115 designated Ununpentium (Uup)
: The Iraqi special Tribunal holds the first hearing in the trial of Saddham Hussian.
: Afghanistan holds its first ever presidential election.
: Scientists discover a new tiny species of human that lived in Indonesia.
: Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat dies in Paris.
: NASA’s unmanned. Probe Deep Impact collided with the comet Tempel-1 on June 3, 2005.G-8 Summit was held at Gleneagles, Resort,Scotland on July 6-8, 2005
: Muhammed Abbas is sworn in as Palestinian Authority President.
: Taiwan and China agree Temporarily lift Taipe’s five – decade ban on direct flights between the two rivals.
: Former Lebanese Prime Minister RafikalHariri is assassinated in a car bombing in central Beirut close to the harbour.
: The trial of pop star Michael Joseph Jackson gets underway in Santa Maria over a year since his arrest on charges of child molestation.
: American aviator Steve Fosset completes the first solo fight around the world without refuelling and lands his jet plane in Salina Kansas.
: Israel open the world’s largest Holocast museum on Mount Herzi in Jerusalem to commemorate the six million Jews exterminated by the Nazis.
: Jalal Talabani is sworn in Iraqi President making him the first non-Arab head of an Arab nation. Shia leader Irabhim Jaafari is nominated as the Prime Minister.
: Pope John Paul II, the ‘‘Peoples Pope’’ or the ‘‘Travelling Pope’’ is laid to rest in the cryst of St. Peters Baslica in Vatican.
: Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger of Germany is elected 265 th Pope and is to be known as Benedict XVI.
: Albanian poet and novelist Ismail Kadare is named the winner of the Man Booker International Prize, a brand new laurel for the world’s finest writers.
: Kuwaits first woman Prime Minister Maasuma al Mubarak, takes out in Parliament.
: Junichiro Koizumi is re-elected as Japanese Primier by the new House of Representatives at a special session in Tokyo.
: The IAEA and its chief Muhammed El Baradei get the Nobel Peace Prize for their work in Stopping the spread of nuclear weapons.
: The Dhaka Declaration decides to set up a SAARC Poverty Alleviation Fund and to declare 2006 – 2015 the SAARC decade of Poverty Alleviation.
: The world’s first facial transplantation is done on a French woman Isabella Dinoire in Amiens.
: US space probe ‘Stardust’ returns to earth carrying precious samples of dust from stars and comets.
: Chile elects Michaelle Bachelet to be its first woman President.
: NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto, as the New Horizons spacecraft is hurled on a 9-year 4.5 b – KM journey.
: 35th summit of World Economic Forum opens, in Davos, Switzerland.
: French actress Eva Green chosen as the new James Bond girl.
: Jamaica to have Portia Simpson Miller as Prime Minister, the first woman head of the state.
: Oscar award announced : ‘Crush’ is the best film, Philip Seymour Hoffman – best actor, Reese Witherspoon – best actress and Ang Lee – Best Director.
: Lakshmi Mittal’s 18.6 billion euro takeover bid for Arcelor is blocked by a change in Luxemburg corporate law.
: Solar eclipse observe in Turkey.
: Kavya Vishwanathan’s novel ‘How Opal Mehta Got kissed, Got wild and got a Life’being recalled from store shelves, after she admits copying passages fr om another book.
: Britain replaces US as the publisher of most new books in English.
: Earthquake measuring 6.2 rocks Yogyakarta in Java killing about three thousand as per first reports.
: J.K. Rowling voted the greatest living British writer in a survey, followed by Terry Pratchett, Ian Mcewan, Salman Rushdie, Kazuo Ishiguro and Philip Pullman.
: World’s oldest tortoise Harriet dies at 176 years in Australia.
: Montenegro becomes the 192th member of United Nations
: Qinghai – Tibet railway the world’s highest and longest highland railway becomes operational.
: First world summit of religious leaders in Moscow is attended by 200 representatives from 40 countries.
: Italy beats France 5-3 to win World Cup Football.
: Kiran Desai wins the Booker Prize.
: Bhutan’s king Jigme Singye Wangchuk abdicates the throne after a 34 year reign in favour of his son crown prince Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk.
: The former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is hanged to death in Baghdad for the 1982 killing of 148 persons of Dujail town, three years after being captured by the US forces.
United Nations Agencies Some important gk
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