soils of India and soils in india

Soils of India and soils in india

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has divided Indian soils in india into eight major groups.

Alluvial soil :-----

·         Punjub, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand.
·         Rich in potash and lime, but deficient in nitrogen and phosphoric acid.
·         Large variety of Rabi and kharif crops such as wheet,rice,sugarcane,cotton and jute etc.

 Black soil (or Regur soll) :-----

  • Deccan Plateau, valleys of Krishna and Godavari,Andhra Pradesh,Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
  • Rich in iron, lime, aluminium, magnesium, calcium, but lacks in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.
  • Cotton, sugarcane,jowar,tobacco,wheat,rice.

Red soil :------

  • Eastern parts of Deccan Plateau.Tamil. nadu,Goa,, Odisha and Meghalaya.
  • Rich in iron potash, but deficient in lime, nitrogen phosphorus and humus.
  • Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and pulses.

Laterite soil :-----

  • Summits of Eastern and western Ghats, Assam hills, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal and Odisha.
  • Rich in iron but poor in silica, lime, Phosphorus, Potash and humus.
  • Tea, coffee, rubber, cashew and millets.

Desert soil :-----

  • West and North-West India, Rajasthan, North Gujarat and Southern Punjab.
  • Rich in soluble salts, but deficient in organic matter.
  • Generally unsuitable for cultivation, but with irrigation useful for cultivation of drought-resistant lime, millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses.

Mountain soil :-----

  • Hills of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Assam hills.
  • Rich in iron and humus, but deficient in lime.
  • With fertilizers ,tea, fruits, and medicinal plants can be grown.

Saline and Alkaline soil :-----

  • Drier parts of Bihar ,jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana,Punjab,Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
  • Many salts such as sodium, magnesium and calcium.
  • Unfit for agriculture.

Peaty and Marshy soil :------

  • Kerela, coastal regions of Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Suderbans of West Bengal.
  • Contain large amount of soluble saits and organic matter, but lack in Potash and phosphates.
  • Useful for rice and jute cultivation.
Read -  sindhu river, ganga river system, Brahmaputra river system

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