Soils of India and soils in india
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has divided Indian soils in india into eight major groups.
Alluvial soil :—–
· Punjub, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand.
· Rich in potash and lime, but deficient in nitrogen and phosphoric acid.
· Large variety of Rabi and kharif crops such as wheet,rice,sugarcane,cotton and jute etc.
Black soil (or Regur soll) :—–
- Deccan Plateau, valleys of Krishna and Godavari,Andhra Pradesh,Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
- Rich in iron, lime, aluminium, magnesium, calcium, but lacks in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.
- Cotton, sugarcane,jowar,tobacco,wheat,rice.
Red soil :——
- Eastern parts of Deccan Plateau.Tamil nadu,Goa, Odisha and Meghalaya.
- Rich in iron potash, but deficient in lime, nitrogen phosphorus and humus.
- Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and pulses.
Laterite soil :—–
- Summits of Eastern and western Ghats, Assam hills, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal and Odisha.
- Rich in iron but poor in silica, lime, Phosphorus, Potash and humus.
- Tea, coffee, rubber, cashew and millets.
Desert soil :—–
- West and North-West India, Rajasthan, North Gujarat and Southern Punjab.
- Rich in soluble salts, but deficient in organic matter.
- Generally unsuitable for cultivation, but with irrigation useful for cultivation of drought-resistant lime, millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses.
Mountain soil :—–
- Hills of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Assam hills.
- Rich in iron and humus, but deficient in lime.
- With fertilizers ,tea, fruits, and medicinal plants can be grown.
Saline and Alkaline soil :—–
- Drier parts of Bihar ,jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana,Punjab,Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
- Many salts such as sodium, magnesium and calcium.
- Unfit for agriculture.
Peaty and Marshy soil :——
- Kerela, coastal regions of Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Suderbans of West Bengal.
- Contain large amount of soluble saits and organic matter, but lack in Potash and phosphates.
- Useful for rice and jute cultivation.
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