basic physics concepts important Gk topic
basic physics concepts (read First)
ELECTRICITY basic physics concepts
- Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.
- Electric charge is a property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions.
The SI unit of charge is coulomb (C).
- Electric current (I) is a movement or flow of electrically charges particle per unit time.
- Electrical currents generate magnetic fields and changing magnetic fields generate electrical currents.
Conductors are the substances which allow the passage of electric charge with low resistance. E.g., silver copper etc.
Silver is the best conductor of electricity followed by copper.
Insulators are substances which do not allow passage of electric charge, rubber, wood, mica, glass, ebonite etc.
- The resistance is the obstruction offered to the flow of electric current.
Electric cell: It is the device used to convert chemical energy into electrical energy.
- Ammeter– Measures current
- Voltmeter– Measures the potential difference between two points in a circuit.
- Fuse is a safety device that protects an electric circuit from becoming overloaded.Transformer
- The transformer is a device which converts low voltage AC into high voltage Ac and vice versa.
Application / uses : As voltage regulators for –
- T.V, refrigerator, computer, air conditioner, etc.
- Induction furnaces.
For welding purposes.
AC Generator / Dynamo / Alternator
- It is an electric device used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
- It converts direct current energy from a battery into mechanical energy of rotation.
- Its uses
- In D.C. fans, exhaust, celling, table fans, etc.
- In pumping water.
- In running tram-cars, trains, etc.
Magnets: The material or body which attract magnetic substance like iron, cobalt, nickel, etc.
- The force of attraction of a magnet is greater at its poles than in meddle.
- Similar poles of two magnets repel each other.
- Opposite poles of two magnets attract each other.
- If a bar magnet is suspended by a thread and free to rotate, its South pole will move towards the north pole of the earth and vice versa.
Uses / Applications
- A magnet is used in making magnetic compasses which help sailors and navigators to know the directions.
- The electromagnet is used in generators, motors, loudspeakers, telephones, TV sets, fans, mixers, electric bells, Maglev etc.
- The nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons together called nucleons.
X-rays are electromagnetic radiations of very short wavelength (0.1 Å to 100 Å) and high energy which is emitted when fast-moving electrons or cathode rays strike a target of high atomic mass.
Properties of X-Rays.
- These are highly penetrating rays and can pass through several materials which are opaque to ordinary light.
- They affect photographic plates.
Nuclear Fission: The process of splitting of a heavy nucleus into two nuclej off comparable size and release off large energy is called In between the other two fission, eg. Atom bomb.
- Nuclear Fusion: The process in which two or lighter nuclej combine to form a heavy nucleus is known as nuclear fusion, e.g. hydrogen bomb.
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